Orthopaedic conditions


Low bone density / Bone weakness

Tennis elbow

Elbow pain


Osteoporosis is a condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle such that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.

Osteoporosis affects men and women of all races. But white and Asian women, especially older women who are past menopause, are at highest risk. Medications, healthy diet and weight-bearing exercise can help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.


  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone that breaks much more easily than expected

Risk factor: Old age, women, post-menopause, thin built, malnourished, family history, post-hysterectomy

Causes:Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the loss of old bone.

When to see a Doctor: It you have the above risk factors, periodic follow-up with the doctor is required to detect any change in the bone-mass.

Treatment: Incidental diagnosis can be manages with bone strengthening medications. DEXA scan may be done to assess the bone density. Osteoporotic fracture are treated by case-to-case basis. 

Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency — when the level of vitamin D in your body is too low — can cause your bones to become thin, brittle or misshapen.

Although the amount of vitamin D adults get from their diets is often less than what’s recommended, exposure to sunlight can make up for the difference. For most adults, vitamin D deficiency is not a concern. However, some groups  may have lower levels of vitamin D due to their diets, little sun exposure or other factors.


Children who are deficient in vitamin D can also have muscle weakness or sore and painful muscles. Severe deficiency can cause rickets.

Lack of vitamin D is not quite as obvious in adults. Signs and symptoms might include:

    • Fatigue.
    • Bone pain.
    • Muscle weakness, muscle aches, or muscle cramps.
    • Mood changes, like depression.
Risk Factors: Diet, lack of sunlight exposure, inflammatory bowel disease, certain medications
Causes: Vitamin D is responsible for the calcium balance in the body, thereby indirectly involved in the bone health. 

Treatment: Usually Vitamin D and calcium supplement, lifestyle changes, morning walk (at sunrise or sunset time).

Plantar Fascitis

Plantar fascitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It involves inflammation of a thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes (plantar fascia).

Symptoms: Plantar fasciitis typically causes a stabbing pain in the bottom of your foot near the heel. The pain is usually the worst with the first few steps after awakening, although it can also be triggered by long periods of standing or when you get up after sitting. The pain is usually worse after exercise, not during it.

Risk factor:

  • Female, Age – Between the ages of 40 and 60.
  • Certain types of exercise. Activities that place a lot of stress on your heel and attached tissue — such as long-distance running, ballet dancing and aerobic dance — can contribute to the onset of plantar fasciitis.
  • Foot mechanics. Flat feet, a high arch or even an abnormal pattern of walking can affect the way weight is distributed when you’re standing and can put added stress on the plantar fascia.
  • Obesity. Excess pounds put extra stress on your plantar fascia.
  • Occupations that keep you on your feet. Factory workers, teachers.

Causes: Your plantar fascia is in the shape of a bowstring, supporting the arch of your foot and absorbing shock when you walk. If tension and stress on this bowstring become too great, small tears can occur in the fascia. Repeated stretching and tearing can irritate or inflame the fascia, although the cause remains unclear in many cases of plantar fasciitis.

When to see a Doctor: Consult a doctor when the pain is unbearable, affecting your day-to-day routine. 

Treatment: Initially managed by medication and plantar stretching exercises. Steroid injection can be advised for chronic pain.

Tennis elbow

Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis) is a painful condition that occurs when tendons in your elbow are overloaded, usually by repetitive motions of the wrist and arm.

Despite its name, athletes aren’t the only people who develop tennis elbow. People whose jobs feature the types of motions that can lead to tennis elbow include plumbers, painters, carpenters and butchers.

The pain of tennis elbow occurs primarily where the tendons of your forearm muscles attach to a bony bump on the outside of your elbow. Pain can also spread into your forearm and wrist.


  • Pain on Shake hands or grip an object
  • Turn a doorknob
  • Hold a coffee cup
Risk Factors: Middle Age, Occupation (involving rotating hand and forearm movements) and certain type of sports
Causes: Tennis elbow is an overuse and muscle strain injury. The cause is repeated contraction of the forearm muscles that you use to straighten and raise your hand and wrist. The repeated motions and stress to the tissue may result in a series of tiny tears in the tendons that attach the forearm muscles to the bony prominence at the outside of your elbow.

Treatment: Mild symptoms may be treated by medications and stretching exercise. Restriction in activity. Severe chronic symptoms may have relief with steroid injection.

Joint Pain

Joint related problems


Arthritic / Degeneration of joints


High uric acid causing joint pain

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Inflammation of synovial joints


Bone decay due to poor blood supply


Bone injury and breakage

Closed fracture

Internal fracture of the bones


Absence of bone healing

Open fracture

Visible (exposed) fracture of the bones


Bone infection

Orthopaedic Conditions

Common Orthopaedic related problems


Low bone density / Bone weakness

Tennis elbow

Elbow pain

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